Learn Python – Python Built-in Functions- Basic and advance

The Python built-in features are described as the functions whose performance is pre-defined in Python. The python interpreter has countless functions that are usually current for use. These features are known as Built-in Functions. There are various built-in functions in Python which are listed below:

Python abs() Function

The python abs() feature is used to return the absolute cost of a number. It takes solely one argument, a wide variety whose absolute price is to be returned. The argument can be an integer and floating-point number. If the argument is a complicated number, then, abs() returns its magnitude.

Python abs() Function Example

#  integer number     
integer = -20  
print('Absolute value of -40 is:', abs(integer))  
  
#  floating number  
floating = -20.83  
print('Absolute value of -40.83 is:', abs(floating))  

Output:

Absolute value of -20 is: 20
Absolute value of -20.83 is: 20.83

Python all() Function

The python all() feature accepts an iterable object (such as list, dictionary, etc.). It returns genuine if all objects in handed iterable are true. Otherwise, it returns False. If the iterable object is empty, the all() function returns True.

Python all() Function Example

# all values true  
k = [1, 3, 4, 6]  
print(all(k))  
  
# all values false  
k = [0, False]  
print(all(k))  
  
# one false value  
k = [1, 3, 7, 0]  
print(all(k))  
  
# one true value  
k = [0, False, 5]  
print(all(k))  
  
# empty iterable  
k = []  
print(all(k))  

Output:

True
False
False
False
True

Python bin() Function

The python bin() feature is used to return the binary representation of a targeted integer. A result always starts offevolved with the prefix 0b.

Python bin() Function Example

x =  10  
y =  bin(x)  
print (y)  

Output:

0b1010

Python bool()

The python bool() converts a price to boolean(True or False) the use of the fashionable truth checking out procedure.

Python bool() Example

test1 = []  
print(test1,'is',bool(test1))  
test1 = [0]  
print(test1,'is',bool(test1))  
test1 = 0.0  
print(test1,'is',bool(test1))  
test1 = None  
print(test1,'is',bool(test1))  
test1 = True  
print(test1,'is',bool(test1))  
test1 = 'Easy string'  
print(test1,'is',bool(test1))  

Output:

[] is False
[0] is True
0.0 is False
None is False
True is True
Easy string is True

Python bytes()

The python bytes() in Python is used for returning a bytes object. It is an immutable model of the bytearray() function.

It can create empty bytes object of the distinct size.

Python bytes() Example

string = "Hello World."  
array = bytes(string, 'utf-8')  
print(array)  

Output:

b ' Hello World.'

Python callable() Function

A python callable() function in Python is something that can be called. This built-in feature tests and returns real if the object surpassed appears to be callable, in any other case false.

Python callable() Function Example

x = 8  
print(callable(x))  

Output:

False

Python compile() Function

The python compile() characteristic takes supply code as input and returns a code object which can later be executed with the aid of exec() function.

Python compile() Function Example

# compile string source to code  
code_str = 'x=5\ny=10\nprint("sum =",x+y)'  
code = compile(code_str, 'sum.py', 'exec')  
print(type(code))  
exec(code)  
exec(x)  

Output:

<class 'code'>
sum = 15

Python exec() Function

The python exec() feature is used for the dynamic execution of Python program which can both be a string or object code and it accepts massive blocks of code, in contrast to the eval() feature which only accepts a single expression.

Python exec() Function Example

x = 8  
exec('print(x==8)')  
exec('print(x+4)')  

Output:

True
12

Python sum() Function

As the title says, python sum() characteristic is used to get the sum of numbers of an iterable, i.e., list.

Python sum() Function Example

s = sum([1, 2,4 ])  
print(s)  
  
s = sum([1, 2, 4], 10)  
print(s)  

Output:

7
17

Python any() Function

The python any() characteristic returns real if any object in an iterable is true. Otherwise, it returns False.

Python any() Function Example

l = [4, 3, 2, 0]                              
print(any(l))                                   
  
l = [0, False]  
print(any(l))  
  
l = [0, False, 5]  
print(any(l))  
  
l = []  
print(any(l))  

Output:

True
False
True
False

Python ascii() Function

The python ascii() feature returns a string containing a printable illustration of an object and escapes the non-ASCII characters in the string the use of \x, \u or \U escapes.

Python ascii() Function Example

normalText = 'Python is interesting'  
print(ascii(normalText))  
  
otherText = 'Pythön is interesting'  
print(ascii(otherText))  
  
print('Pyth\xf6n is interesting')  

Output:

'Python is interesting'
'Pyth\xf6n is interesting'
Pythön is interesting

Python bytearray()

The python bytearray() returns a bytearray object and can convert objects into bytearray objects, or create an empty bytearray object of the targeted size.

Python bytearray() Example

string = "Python is a programming language."  
  
# string with encoding 'utf-8'  
arr = bytearray(string, 'utf-8')  
print(arr)  

Output:

bytearray(b'Python is a programming language.')

Python eval() Function

The python eval() characteristic parses the expression surpassed to it and runs python expression(code) inside the program.

Python eval() Function Example

x = 8  
print(eval('x + 1'))  

Output:

9

Python float()

The python float() characteristic returns a floating-point number from a quantity or string.

Python float() Example

# for integers  
print(float(9))  
  
# for floats  
print(float(8.19))  
  
# for string floats  
print(float("-24.27"))  
  
# for string floats with whitespaces  
print(float("     -17.19\n"))  
  
# string float error  
print(float("xyz"))  

Output:

9.0
8.19
-24.27
-17.19
ValueError: could not convert string to float: 'xyz'

Python format() Function

The python format() characteristic returns a formatted representation of the given value.

Python format() Function Example

# d, f and b are a type  
  
# integer  
print(format(123, "d"))  
  
# float arguments  
print(format(123.4567898, "f"))  
  
# binary format  
print(format(12, "b"))  

Output:

123
123.456790
1100

Python frozenset()

The python frozenset() feature returns an immutable frozenset object initialized with elements from the given iterable.

Python frozenset() Example

# tuple of letters  
letters = ('m', 'r', 'o', 't', 's')  
  
fSet = frozenset(letters)  
print('Frozen set is:', fSet)  
print('Empty frozen set is:', frozenset())  

Output:

Frozen set is: frozenset({'o', 'm', 's', 'r', 't'})
Empty frozen set is: frozenset()

Python getattr() Function

The python getattr() characteristic returns the cost of a named attribute of an object. If it is no longer found, it returns the default value.

Python getattr() Function Example

class Details:  
    age = 22  
    name = "Phill"  
  
details = Details()  
print('The age is:', getattr(details, "age"))  
print('The age is:', details.age)  

Output:

The age is: 22
The age is: 22

Python globals() Function

The python globals() function returns the dictionary of the current international image table.

A Symbol desk is described as a data structure which includes all the necessary statistics about the program. It consists of variable names, methods, classes, etc.

Python globals() Function Example

age = 22  
  
globals()['age'] = 22  
print('The age is:', age)  

Output:

The age is: 22

Python hasattr() Function

The python any() function returns true if any item in an iterable is true, otherwise it returns False.

Python hasattr() Function Example

l = [4, 3, 2, 0]                              
print(any(l))                                   
  
l = [0, False]  
print(any(l))  
  
l = [0, False, 5]  
print(any(l))  
  
l = []  
print(any(l))  

Output:

True
False
True
False

Python iter() Function

The python iter() function is used to return an iterator object. It creates an object which can be iterated one aspect at a time.

Python iter() Function Example

# list of numbers  
list = [1,2,3,4,5]  
  
listIter = iter(list)  
  
# prints '1'  
print(next(listIter))  
  
# prints '2'  
print(next(listIter))  
  
# prints '3'  
print(next(listIter))  
  
# prints '4'  
print(next(listIter))  
  
# prints '5'  
print(next(listIter))  

Output:

1
2
3
4
5

Python len() Function

The python len() function is used to return the size (the number of items) of an object.

Python len() Function Example

strA = 'Python'  
print(len(strA))  

Output:

6

Python list()

The python list() creates a list in python.

Python list() Example

# empty list  
print(list())  
  
# string  
String = 'abcde'       
print(list(String))  
  
# tuple  
Tuple = (1,2,3,4,5)  
print(list(Tuple))  
# list  
List = [1,2,3,4,5]  
print(list(List))  

Output:

[]
['a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e']
[1,2,3,4,5]
[1,2,3,4,5]

Python locals() Function

The python locals() technique updates and returns the dictionary of the modern nearby image table.

A Symbol table is defined as a records structure which includes all the critical records about the program. It consists of variable names, methods, classes, etc.

Python locals() Function Example

def localsAbsent():  
    return locals()  
  
def localsPresent():  
    present = True  
    return locals()  
  
print('localsNotPresent:', localsAbsent())  
print('localsPresent:', localsPresent())  

Output:

localsAbsent: {}
localsPresent: {'present': True}

Python map() Function

The python map() characteristic is used to return a listing of results after making use of a given characteristic to each item of an iterable(list, tuple etc.).

Python map() Function Example

def calculateAddition(n):  
  return n+n  
  
numbers = (1, 2, 3, 4)  
result = map(calculateAddition, numbers)  
print(result)  
  
# converting map object to set  
numbersAddition = set(result)  
print(numbersAddition)  

Output:

<map object at 0x7fb04a6bec18>
{8, 2, 4, 6}

Python memoryview() Function

The python memoryview() function returns a memoryview object of the given argument.

Python memoryview () Function Example

#A random bytearray  
randomByteArray = bytearray('ABC', 'utf-8')  
  
mv = memoryview(randomByteArray)  
  
# access the memory view's zeroth index  
print(mv[0])  
  
# It create byte from memory view  
print(bytes(mv[0:2]))  
  
# It create list from memory view  
print(list(mv[0:3]))  

Output:

65
b'AB'
[65, 66, 67]

Python object()

The python object() returns an empty object. It is a base for all the instructions and holds the built-in residences and techniques which are default for all the classes.

Python object() Example

python = object()  
  
print(type(python))  
print(dir(python))  

Output:

<class 'object'>
['__class__', '__delattr__', '__dir__', '__doc__', '__eq__', '__format__', '__ge__', 
'__getattribute__', '__gt__', '__hash__', '__init__', '__le__', '__lt__', '__ne__', 
'__new__', '__reduce__', '__reduce_ex__', '__repr__', '__setattr__', '__sizeof__', 
'__str__', '__subclasshook__']

Python open() Function

The python open() feature opens the file and returns a corresponding file object.

Python open() Function Example

# opens python.text file of the current directory  
f = open("python.txt")  
# specifying full path  
f = open("C:/Python33/README.txt")  

Output:

Since the mode is omitted, the file is opened in 'r' mode; opens for reading.

Python chr() Function

Python chr() function is used to get a string representing a persona which factors to a Unicode code integer. For example, chr(97) returns the string ‘a’. This feature takes an integer argument and throws an error if it exceeds the unique range. The standard range of the argument is from zero to 1,114,111.

Python chr() Function Example

# Calling function  
result = chr(102) # It returns string representation of a char  
result2 = chr(112)  
# Displaying result  
print(result)  
print(result2)  
# Verify, is it string type?  
print("is it string type:", type(result) is str)  

Output:

ValueError: chr() arg not in range(0x110000)

Python complex()

Python complex() feature is used to convert numbers or string into a complex number. This technique takes two optional parameters and returns a complex number. The first parameter is known as a real and 2nd as imaginary parts.

Python complex() Example

# Python complex() function example  
# Calling function  
a = complex(1) # Passing single parameter  
b = complex(1,2) # Passing both parameters  
# Displaying result  
print(a)  
print(b)  

Output:

(1.5+0j)
(1.5+2.2j)

Python delattr() Function

Python delattr() feature is used to delete an attribute from a class. It takes two parameters, first is an object of the type and 2nd is an attribute which we choose to delete. After deleting the attribute, it no longer on hand in the class and throws an error if attempt to name it the usage of the class object.

Python delattr() Function Example

class Student:  
    id = 101  
    name = "Pranshu"  
    email = "pranshu@abc.com"  
# Declaring function  
    def getinfo(self):  
        print(self.id, self.name, self.email)  
s = Student()  
s.getinfo()  
delattr(Student,'course') # Removing attribute which is not available  
s.getinfo() # error: throws an error  

Output:

101 Pranshu pranshu@abc.com
AttributeError: course

Python dir() Function

Python dir() characteristic returns the listing of names in the cutting-edge nearby scope. If the object on which technique is called has a method named __dir__(), this method will be known as and must return the listing of attributes. It takes a single object type argument.

Python dir() Function Example

# Calling function  
att = dir()  
# Displaying result  
print(att)  

Output:

['__annotations__', '__builtins__', '__cached__', '__doc__', '__file__', '__loader__', 
'__name__', '__package__', '__spec__']

Python divmod() Function

Python divmod() feature is used to get the rest and quotient of two numbers. This feature takes two numeric arguments and returns a tuple. Both arguments are required and numeric

Python divmod() Function Example

# Python divmod() function example  
# Calling function  
result = divmod(10,2)  
# Displaying result  
print(result)  

Output:

(5, 0)

Python enumerate() Function

Python enumerate() function returns an enumerated object. It takes two parameters, first is a sequence of factors and the second is the start index of the sequence. We can get the elements in sequence both through a loop or next() method.

Python enumerate() Function Example

# Calling function  
result = enumerate([1,2,3])  
# Displaying result  
print(result)  
print(list(result))  

Output:

<enumerate object at 0x7ff641093d80>
[(0, 1), (1, 2), (2, 3)]

Python dict()

Python dict() function is a constructor which creates a dictionary. Python dictionary presents three extraordinary constructors to create a dictionary:

If no argument is passed, it creates an empty dictionary.

If a positional argument is given, a dictionary is created with the same key-value pairs. Otherwise, pass an iterable object.

If keyword arguments are given, the keyword arguments and their values are added to the dictionary created from the positional argument.

Python dict() Example

# Calling function  
result = dict() # returns an empty dictionary  
result2 = dict(a=1,b=2)  
# Displaying result  
print(result)  
print(result2)  

Output:

{}
{'a': 1, 'b': 2}

Python filter() Function

Python filter() characteristic is used to get filtered elements. This characteristic takes two arguments, first is a feature and the 2nd is iterable. The filter feature returns a sequence of those elements of iterable object for which feature returns actual value.

The first argument can be none, if the characteristic is now not handy and returns only elements that are true.

Python filter() Function Example

# Python filter() function example  
def filterdata(x):  
    if x>5:  
        return x  
# Calling function  
result = filter(filterdata,(1,2,6))  
# Displaying result  
print(list(result))  

Output:

[6]

Python hash() Function

Python hash() feature is used to get the hash value of an object. Python calculates the hash price via using the hash algorithm. The hash values are integers and used to evaluate dictionary keys at some stage in a dictionary lookup. We can hash only the types which are given below:

Hashable types: * bool * int * long * flow * string * Unicode * tuple * code object.

Python hash() Function Example

# Calling function  
result = hash(21) # integer value  
result2 = hash(22.2) # decimal value  
# Displaying result  
print(result)  
print(result2)  

Output:

21
461168601842737174

Python help() Function

Python help() function is used to get help related to the object surpassed during the call. It takes an non-compulsory parameter and returns help information. If no argument is given, it suggests the Python assist console. It internally calls python’s assist function.

Python help() Function Example

# Calling function  
info = help() # No argument  
# Displaying result  
print(info)  

Output:

Welcome to Python 3.5's help utility!

Python min() Function

Python min() function is used to get the smallest factor from the collection. This function takes two arguments, first is a collection of elements and second is key, and returns the smallest aspect from the collection.

Python min() Function Example

# Calling function  
small = min(2225,325,2025) # returns smallest element  
small2 = min(1000.25,2025.35,5625.36,10052.50)  
# Displaying result  
print(small)  
print(small2)  

Output:

325
1000.25

Python set() Function

In python, a set is a built-in class, and this function is a constructor of this class. It is used to create a new set using factors surpassed in the course of the call. It takes an iterable object as an argument and returns a new set object.

Python set() Function Example

# Calling function  
result = set() # empty set  
result2 = set('12')  
result3 = set('javatpoint')  
# Displaying result  
print(result)  
print(result2)  
print(result3)  

Output:

set()
{'1', '2'}
{'a', 'n', 'v', 't', 'j', 'p', 'i', 'o'}

Python hex() Function

Python hex() function is used to generate hex cost of an integer argument. It takes an integer argument and returns an integer transformed into a hexadecimal string. In case, we choose to get a hexadecimal fee of a float, then use float.hex() function.

Python hex() Function Example

# Calling function  
result = hex(1)   
# integer value  
result2 = hex(342)   
# Displaying result  
print(result)  
print(result2)  

Output:

0x1
0x156

Python id() Function

Python id() feature returns the identity of an object. This is an integer which is guaranteed to be unique. This characteristic takes an argument as an object and returns a unique integer variety which represents identity. Two objects with non-overlapping lifetimes may also have the same id() value.

Python id() Function Example

# Calling function  
val = id("Javatpoint") # string object  
val2 = id(1200) # integer object  
val3 = id([25,336,95,236,92,3225]) # List object  
# Displaying result  
print(val)  
print(val2)  
print(val3)  

Output:

139963782059696
139963805666864
139963781994504

Python setattr() Function

Python setattr() characteristic is used to set a price to the object’s attribute. It takes three arguments, i.e., an object, a string, and an arbitrary value, and returns none. It is helpful when we choose to add a new attribute to an object and set a cost to it.

Python setattr() Function Example

class Student:  
    id = 0  
    name = ""  
      
    def __init__(self, id, name):  
        self.id = id  
        self.name = name  
          
student = Student(102,"Sohan")  
print(student.id)  
print(student.name)  
#print(student.email) product error  
setattr(student, 'email','sohan@abc.com') # adding new attribute  
print(student.email)  

Output:

102
Sohan
sohan@abc.com

Python slice() Function

Python slice() feature is used to get a slice of elements from the series of elements. Python presents two overloaded slice functions. The first characteristic takes a single argument whilst the second function takes three arguments and returns a slice object. This slice object can be used to get a subsection of the collection.

Python slice() Function Example

# Calling function  
result = slice(5) # returns slice object  
result2 = slice(0,5,3) # returns slice object  
# Displaying result  
print(result)  
print(result2)  

Output:

slice(None, 5, None)
slice(0, 5, 3)

Python sorted() Function

Python sorted() characteristic is used to kind elements. By default, it varieties elements in an ascending order but can be sorted in descending also. It takes 4 arguments and returns a collection in sorted order. In the case of a dictionary, it varieties only keys, no longer values.

Python sorted() Function Example

str = "javatpoint" # declaring string  
# Calling function  
sorted1 = sorted(str) # sorting string  
# Displaying result  
print(sorted1)  

Output:

['a', 'a', 'i', 'j', 'n', 'o', 'p', 't', 't', 'v']

Python next() Function

Python next() feature is used to fetch next object from the collection. It takes two arguments, i.e., an iterator and a default value, and returns an element.

This approach calls on iterator and throws an error if no item is present. To keep away from the error, we can set a default value.

Python next() Function Example

number = iter([256, 32, 82]) # Creating iterator  
# Calling function  
item = next(number)   
# Displaying result  
print(item)  
# second item  
item = next(number)  
print(item)  
# third item  
item = next(number)  
print(item)  

Output:

256
32
82

Python input() Function

Python input() function is used to get an input from the user. It prompts for the user input and reads a line. After studying data, it converts it into a string and returns it. It throws an error EOFError if EOF is read.

Python input() Function Example

# Calling function  
val = input("Enter a value: ")  
# Displaying result  
print("You entered:",val)  

Output:

Enter a value: 45
You entered: 45

Python int() Function

Python int() function is used to get an integer value. It returns an expression converted into an integer number. If the argument is a floating-point, the conversion truncates the number. If the argument is outdoor the integer range, then it converts the wide variety into a lengthy type.

If the wide variety is now not a variety or if a base is given, the range must be a string.

Python int() Function Example

# Calling function  
val = int(10) # integer value  
val2 = int(10.52) # float value  
val3 = int('10') # string value  
# Displaying result  
print("integer values :",val, val2, val3)  

Output:

integer values : 10 10 10

Python isinstance() Function

Python isinstance() feature is used to test whether or not the given object is an occasion of that class. If the object belongs to the class, it returns true. Otherwise returns False. It also returns true if the class is a subclass.

The isinstance() feature takes two arguments, i.e., object and classinfo, and then it returns both True or False.

Python isinstance() function Example

class Student:  
    id = 101  
    name = "John"  
    def __init__(self, id, name):  
        self.id=id  
        self.name=name  
  
student = Student(1010,"John")  
lst = [12,34,5,6,767]  
# Calling function   
print(isinstance(student, Student)) # isinstance of Student class  
print(isinstance(lst, Student))  

Output:

True
False

Python oct() Function

Python oct() function is used to get an octal fee of an integer number. This approach takes an argument and returns an integer converted into an octal string. It throws an error TypeError, if argument type is other than an integer.

Python oct() function Example

# Calling function  
val = oct(10)  
# Displaying result  
print("Octal value of 10:",val)  

Output:

Octal value of 10: 0o12

Python ord() Function

The python ord() feature returns an integer representing Unicode code point for the given Unicode character.

Python ord() function Example

# Code point of an integer  
print(ord('8'))  
  
# Code point of an alphabet   
print(ord('R'))  
  
# Code point of a character  
print(ord('&'))  

Output:

56
82
38

Python pow() Function

The python pow() function is used to compute the energy of a number. It returns x to the electricity of y. If the 0.33 argument(z) is given, it returns x to the energy of y modulus z, i.e. (x, y) percent z.

Python pow() function Example

# positive x, positive y (x**y)  
print(pow(4, 2))  
  
# negative x, positive y  
print(pow(-4, 2))  
  
# positive x, negative y (x**-y)  
print(pow(4, -2))  
  
# negative x, negative y  
print(pow(-4, -2))  

Output:

16
16
0.0625
0.0625

Python print() Function

The python print() feature prints the given object to the display or different widespread output devices.

Python print() function Example

print("Python is programming language.")  
  
x = 7  
# Two objects passed  
print("x =", x)  
  
y = x  
# Three objects passed  
print('x =', x, '= y')  

Output:

Python is programming language.
x = 7
x = 7 = y

Python range() Function

The python range() function returns an immutable sequence of numbers beginning from 0 by using default, increments via 1 (by default) and ends at a specified number.

Python range() function Example

# empty range  
print(list(range(0)))  
  
# using the range(stop)  
print(list(range(4)))  
  
# using the range(start, stop)  
print(list(range(1,7 )))  

Output:

[]
[0, 1, 2, 3]
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]

Python reversed() Function

The python reversed() function returns the reversed iterator of the given sequence.

Python reversed() function Example

# for string  
String = 'Java'  
print(list(reversed(String)))  
  
# for tuple  
Tuple = ('J', 'a', 'v', 'a')  
print(list(reversed(Tuple)))  
  
# for range  
Range = range(8, 12)  
print(list(reversed(Range)))  
  
# for list  
List = [1, 2, 7, 5]  
print(list(reversed(List)))  

Output:

['a', 'v', 'a', 'J']
['a', 'v', 'a', 'J']
[11, 10, 9, 8]
[5, 7, 2, 1]

Python round() Function

The python round() function rounds off the digits of a variety and returns the floating point number.

Python round() Function Example

#  for integers  
print(round(10))  
  
#  for floating point  
print(round(10.8))  
  
#  even choice  
print(round(6.6))  

Output:

10
11
7

Python issubclass() Function

The python issubclass() characteristic returns proper if object argument(first argument) is a subclass of 2d class(second argument).

Python issubclass() Function Example

class Rectangle:  
  def __init__(rectangleType):  
    print('Rectangle is a ', rectangleType)  
  
class Square(Rectangle):  
  def __init__(self):  
    Rectangle.__init__('square')  
      
print(issubclass(Square, Rectangle))  
print(issubclass(Square, list))  
print(issubclass(Square, (list, Rectangle)))  
print(issubclass(Rectangle, (list, Rectangle)))  

Output:

True
False
True
True

Python str

The python str() converts a special fee into a string.

Python str() Function Example

str('4')  

Output:

'4'

Python tuple() Function

The python tuple() feature is used to create a tuple object.

Python tuple() Function Example

t1 = tuple()  
print('t1=', t1)  
  
# creating a tuple from a list  
t2 = tuple([1, 6, 9])  
print('t2=', t2)  
  
# creating a tuple from a string  
t1 = tuple('Java')  
print('t1=',t1)  
  
# creating a tuple from a dictionary  
t1 = tuple({4: 'four', 5: 'five'})  
print('t1=',t1)  

Output:

t1= ()
t2= (1, 6, 9)
t1= ('J', 'a', 'v', 'a')
t1= (4, 5)

Python type()

The python type() returns the type of the distinctive object if a single argument is surpassed to the type() constructed in function. If three arguments are passed, then it returns a new type object.

Python type() Function Example

List = [4, 5]  
print(type(List))  
  
Dict = {4: 'four', 5: 'five'}  
print(type(Dict))  
  
class Python:  
    a = 0  
  
InstanceOfPython = Python()  
print(type(InstanceOfPython))  

Output:

<class 'list'>
<class 'dict'>
<class '__main__.Python'>

Python vars() function

The python vars() function returns the __dict__ attribute of the given object.

Python vars() Function Example

class Python:  
  def __init__(self, x = 7, y = 9):  
    self.x = x  
    self.y = y  
    
InstanceOfPython = Python()  
print(vars(InstanceOfPython))  

Output:

{'y': 9, 'x': 7}

Python zip() Function

The python zip() Function returns a zip object, which maps a comparable index of more than one containers. It takes iterables (can be zero or more), makes it an iterator that aggregates the elements based on iterables passed, and returns an iterator of tuples.

Python zip() Function Example

numList = [4,5, 6]  
strList = ['four', 'five', 'six']  
  
# No iterables are passed  
result = zip()  
  
# Converting itertor to list  
resultList = list(result)  
print(resultList)  
  
# Two iterables are passed  
result = zip(numList, strList)  
  
# Converting itertor to set  
resultSet = set(result)  
print(resultSet)  

Output:

[]
{(5, 'five'), (4, 'four'), (6, 'six')}