Learn Python – Python OOPs Concepts- Basic and advance

Like different general-purpose programming languages, Python is also an object-oriented language when you consider that its beginning. It permits us to advance applications the usage of an Object-Oriented approach. In Python, we can effortlessly create and use classes and objects.

An object-oriented paradigm is to sketch the software using classes and objects. The object is associated to real-word entities such as book, house, pencil, etc. The oops thinking focuses on writing the reusable code. It is a extensive approach to remedy the trouble by using growing objects.

Major ideas of object-oriented programming gadget are given below.

Class

Object

Method

Inheritance

Polymorphism

Data Abstraction

Encapsulation

Class

The category can be described as a series of objects. It is a logical entity that has some specific attributes and methods. For example: if you have an worker class, then it must comprise an attribute and method, i.e. an e mail id, name, age, salary, etc.

Syntax

class ClassName:     
        <statement-1>     
        .     
        .      
        <statement-N>     

Object

The object is an entity that has country and behavior. It may additionally be any real-world object like the mouse, keyboard, chair, table, pen, etc.

Everything in Python is an object, and almost the whole lot has attributes and methods. All features have a built-in attribute __doc__, which returns the docstring defined in the characteristic supply code.

When we define a class, it wishes to create an object to allocate the memory. Consider the following example.

Example:

class car:  
    def __init__(self,modelname, year):  
        self.modelname = modelname  
        self.year = year  
    def display(self):  
        print(self.modelname,self.year)  
  
c1 = car("Toyota", 2016)  
c1.display()  

Output:

Toyota 2016

In the above example, we have created the type named car, and it has two attributes modelname and year. We have created a c1 object to get entry to the class attribute. The c1 object will allocate reminiscence for these values. We will examine greater about class and object in the subsequent tutorial.

Method

The technique is a characteristic that is related with an object. In Python, a approach is now not special to class instances. Any object kind can have methods.

Inheritance

Inheritance is the most vital element of object-oriented programming, which simulates the real-world concept of inheritance. It specifies that the child object acquires all the residences and behaviors of the father or mother object.

By the usage of inheritance, we can create a classification which uses all the homes and behavior of every other class. The new class is recognised as a derived category or toddler class, and the one whose properties are obtained is recognized as a base type or dad or mum class.

It provides the re-usability of the code.

Polymorphism

Polymorphism contains two phrases “poly” and “morphs”. Poly skill many, and morph capacity shape. By polymorphism, we apprehend that one project can be performed in exclusive ways. For instance – you have a classification animal, and all animals speak. But they talk differently. Here, the “speak” conduct is polymorphic in a sense and depends on the animal. So, the abstract “animal” concept does no longer absolutely “speak”, but precise animals (like puppies and cats) have a concrete implementation of the motion “speak”.

Encapsulation

Encapsulation is also an essential thing of object-oriented programming. It is used to preclude get right of entry to to techniques and variables. In encapsulation, code and statistics are wrapped collectively inside a single unit from being modified by way of accident.

Data Abstraction

Data abstraction and encapsulation both are often used as synonyms. Both are almost synonyms because records abstraction is executed via encapsulation.

Abstraction is used to hide inner important points and exhibit solely functionalities. Abstracting something capacity to provide names to things so that the name captures the core of what a feature or a complete application does.

Object-oriented vs. Procedure-oriented Programming languages

The difference between object-oriented and procedure-oriented programming is given below:

Index Object-oriented Programming Procedural Programming
1. Object-oriented programming is the problem-solving approach and used where computation is done by using objects. Procedural programming uses a list of instructions to do computation step by step.
2. It makes the development and maintenance easier. In procedural programming, It is not easy to maintain the codes when the project becomes lengthy.
3. It simulates the real world entity. So real-world problems can be easily solved through oops. It doesn’t simulate the real world. It works on step by step instructions divided into small parts called functions.
4. It provides data hiding. So it is more secure than procedural languages. You cannot access private data from anywhere. Procedural language doesn’t provide any proper way for data binding, so it is less secure.
5. Example of object-oriented programming languages is C++, Java, .Net, Python, C#, etc. Example of procedural languages are: C, Fortran, Pascal, VB etc.