Learn Python – Python Tutorial- Basic and advance

Python tutorial offers simple and advanced ideas of Python. Our Python tutorial is designed for novices and professionals.

Python is a simple, prevalent purpose, excessive level, and object-oriented programming language.

Python is an interpreted scripting language also. Guido Van Rossum is recognised as the founder of Python programming.

Our Python tutorial includes all matters of Python Programming such as installation, manage statements, Strings, Lists, Tuples, Dictionary, Modules, Exceptions, Date and Time, File I/O, Programs, etc. There are also given Python interview questions to assist you higher recognize Python Programming.

What is Python

Python is a typical purpose, dynamic, high-level, and interpreted programming language. It supports Object Oriented programming strategy to strengthen applications. It is easy and easy to learn and affords plenty of high-level statistics structures.

Python is handy to study yet effective and versatile scripting language, which makes it alluring for Application Development.

Python’s syntax and dynamic typing with its interpreted nature make it an ideal language for scripting and fast application development.

Python supports more than one programming pattern, which includes object-oriented, imperative, and practical or procedural programming styles.

Python is not intended to work in a specific area, such as net programming. That is why it is acknowledged as multipurpose programming language because it can be used with web, enterprise, 3D CAD, etc.

We don’t want to use information types to declare variable due to the fact it is dynamically typed so we can write a=10 to assign an integer cost in an integer variable.

Python makes the improvement and debugging speedy because there is no compilation step protected in Python development, and edit-test-debug cycle is very fast.

Python 2 vs. Python 3

In most of the programming languages, every time a new version releases, it supports the facets and syntax of the existing model of the language, therefore, it is less difficult for the initiatives to swap in the more recent version. However, in the case of Python, the two versions Python 2 and Python 3 are very a whole lot special from each other.

A listing of variations between Python 2 and Python three are given below:

Python 2 uses print as a statement and used as print "something" to print some string on the console. On the other hand, Python 3 uses print as a function and used as print("something") to print something on the console.
Python 2 uses the function raw_input() to accept the user's input. It returns the string representing the value, which is typed by the user. To convert it into the integer, we need to use the int() function in Python. On the other hand, Python 3 uses input() function which automatically interpreted the type of input entered by the user. However, we can cast this value to any type by using primitive functions (int(), str(), etc.).
In Python 2, the implicit string type is ASCII, whereas, in Python 3, the implicit string type is Unicode.
Python 3 doesn't contain the xrange() function of Python 2. The xrange() is the variant of range() function which returns a xrange object that works similar to Java iterator. The range() returns a list for example the function range(0,3) contains 0, 1, 2.
There is also a small change made in Exception handling in Python 3. It defines a keyword as which is necessary to be used. We will discuss it in Exception handling section of Python programming tutorial.

Python History

Python was invented by Guido van Rossum in 1991 at CWI in Netherland. The notion of Python programming language has taken from the ABC programming language or we can say that ABC is a predecessor of Python language.

There is also a reality in the back of the deciding on name Python. Guido van Rossum was a fan of the famous BBC comedy exhibit of that time, “Monty Python’s Flying Circus”. So he determined to select the title Python for his newly created programming language.

Python has the big neighborhood across the world and releases its version inside the quick period.

Why learn Python?

Python offers many useful aspects to the programmer. These aspects make it most popular and broadly used language. We have listed below few-essential characteristic of Python.

Easy to use and Learn

Expressive Language

Interpreted Language

Object-Oriented Language

Open Source Language

Extensible

Learn Standard Library

GUI Programming Support

Integrated

Embeddable

Dynamic Memory Allocation

Wide Range of Libraries and Frameworks

Where is Python used?

Python is a general-purpose, popular programming language and it is used in nearly each technical field. The a variety of areas of Python use are given below.

Data Science

Date Mining

Desktop Applications

Console-based Applications

Mobile Applications

Software Development

Artificial Intelligence

Web Applications

Enterprise Applications

3D CAD Applications

Machine Learning

Computer Vision or Image Processing Applications.

Speech Recognitions

Python Basic Syntax

There is no use of curly braces or semicolon in Python programming language. It is English-like language. But Python makes use of the indentation to outline a block of code. Indentation is nothing but adding whitespace before the statement when it is needed. For instance –

def func():  
       statement 1  
       statement 2  
       …………………  
       …………………  
         statement N  

In the above example, the statements that are identical level to right belong to the function. Generally, we can use 4 whitespaces to outline indentation.

Python First Program

Unlike the different programming languages, Python provides the facility to execute the code the usage of few lines. For example – Suppose we desire to print the “Hello World” application in Java; it will take three lines to print it.

public class HelloWorld {  
 public static void main(String[] args){  
// Prints "Hello, World" to the terminal window.  
  System.out.println("Hello World");  
 }  
 }  

On the other hand, we can do this using one declaration in Python.

print("Hello World")  

Both packages will print the same result, but it takes solely one assertion without the usage of a semicolon or curly braces in Python.

Python Popular Frameworks and Libraries

Python has broad range of libraries and frameworks widely used in various fields such as desktop learning, synthetic intelligence, internet applications, etc. We define some popular frameworks and libraries of Python as follows.

Web development (Server-side) – Django Flask, Pyramid, CherryPy

GUIs based applications – Tk, PyGTK, PyQt, PyJs, etc.

Machine Learning – TensorFlow, PyTorch, Scikit-learn, Matplotlib, Scipy, etc.

Mathematics – Numpy, Pandas, etc.

Python print() Function

The print() characteristic shows the given object to the popular output device (screen) or to the textual content move file.

Unlike the other programming languages, Python print() feature is most special and versatile function.

The syntax of print() function is given below.

print(*objects, sep=' ', end='\n', file=sys.stdout, flush=False)  

Let’s explain its parameters one by one.

objects – An object is nothing but a statement that to be printed. The * sign represents that there can be multiple statements.

sep – The sep parameter separates the print values. Default values is ‘ ‘.

end – The end is printed at last in the statement.

file – It must be an object with a write(string) method.

flush – The stream or file is forcibly flushed if it is true. By default, its value is false.

Let’s understand the following example.

Example – 1: Return a value

print("Welcome to javaTpoint.")  
  
a = 10  
# Two objects are passed in print() function  
print("a =", a)  
  
b = a  
# Three objects are passed in print function  
print('a =', a, '= b')  

Output:

Welcome to javaTpoint.

a = 10

a = 10 = b

As we can see in the above output, the more than one objects can be printed in the single print() statement. We simply want to use comma (,) to separate with each other.

Example – 2: Using sep and end argument

a = 10  
print("a =", a, sep='dddd', end='\n\n\n')  
print("a =", a, sep='0', end='$$$$$')  

Output:

a =dddd10

In the first print() statement, we use the sep and end arguments. The given object is printed just after the sep values. The value of cease parameter printed at the remaining of given object. As we can see that, the 2nd print() feature printed the end result after the three black lines.

Taking Input to the User

Python gives the input() characteristic which is used to take input from the user. Let’s recognize the following example.

Example –

name = input("Enter a name of student:")  
print("The student name is: ", name)  

Output:

Enter a title of student: Devansh The student title is: Devansh

By default, the input() characteristic takes the string enter but what if we desire to take other data kinds as an input.

If we choose to take enter as an integer number, we need to typecast the input() feature into an integer.

For example –

Example –

a  = int(input("Enter first number: "))  
b = int(input("Enter second number: "))  
  
print(a+b)  

Output:

Enter first number: 50 Enter 2nd number: 100 150

We can take any kind of values the usage of input() function.

Python Operators

Operators are the symbols which perform a number operations on Python objects. Python operators are the most indispensable to work with the Python statistics types. In addition, Python also gives perceive membership and bitwise operators. We will learn all these operators with the appropriate instance in following tutorial.

Python Operators

Python Conditional Statements

Conditional statements help us to execute a unique block for a precise condition. In this tutorial, we will analyze how to use the conditional expression to execute a different block of statements. Python affords if and else key phrases to set up logical conditions. The elif key-word is additionally used as conditional statement.

Python if..else statement

Python Loops

Sometimes we may need to alter the go with the flow of the program. The execution of a unique code may also need to be repeated several numbers of times. For this purpose, the programming languages furnish a number of kinds of loops succesful of repeating some particular code various times. Consider the following tutorial to understand the statements in detail.

Python Loops

Python For Loop

Python While Loop

Python Data Structures

Data buildings are referred which can preserve some statistics together or we say that they are used to save the statistics in equipped way. Python offers built-in data structures such as list, tuple, dictionary, and set. We can operate complicated tasks the usage of facts structures.

Python List

Python listing holds the ordered collection of items. We can save a sequence of gadgets in a list. Python listing is mutable which means it can be modified after its creation. The items of lists are enclosed inside the rectangular bracket [] and separated by using the comma. Let’s see the example of list.

L1 = ["John", 102, "USA"]      
L2 = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]     

If we attempt to print the kind of L1, L2, and L3 using type() function then it will come out to be a list.

print(type(L1))    
print(type(L2))    

Output:

<class ‘list’>

<class ‘list’>

To examine more about list, go to the following tutorial.

Python List

Python List Functions

Python Tuple

Python Tuple is used to keep the sequence of immutable Python objects. The tuple is similar to lists given that the value of the items stored in the list can be changed, whereas the tuple is immutable, and the value of the gadgets saved in the tuple cannot be changed.

Tuple can be defined as follows

Example –

tup = ("Apple", "Mango" , "Orange" , "Banana")  
print(type(tup))  
print(tup)  

Output:

(‘Apple’, ‘Mango’, ‘Orange’, ‘Banana’)

If we attempt to add new to the tuple, it will throw an error.

Example –

tup = ("Apple", "Mango" , "Orange" , "Banana")  
  
tup[2] = "Papaya"  
print(tup)  

Output:

Traceback (most latest name last): File “C:/Users/DEVANSH SHARMA/PycharmProjects/Hello/gamewithturtle.py”, line 3, in tup[2] = “Papaya” TypeError: ‘tuple’ object does now not guide item venture

The above program throws an error due to the fact tuples are immutable type. To analyze extra about tuple, go to the Python Tuples.

Python Tuple

Python String

Python string is a sequence of characters. It is a series of the characters surrounded with the aid of single quotes, double quotes, or triple quotes. It can additionally define as series of the Unicode characters. We can create a string as follows.

Example –

# Creating string using double quotes  
str1 = "Hi Python"  
print(str1)  
# Creating string using single quotes  
str1 = 'Hi Python'  
print(str1)  
# Creating string using triple quotes  
str1 = '''Hi Python'''  
print(str1)  

Output:

Hi Python

Hi Python

Hi Python

Python would not help the persona data-type. A single persona written as ‘p’ is treated as a string of length 1.

Stings are additionally immutable. We can’t alternate after it is declared. To examine more about the string, visit the following tutorial.

Python Strings

Python String Method

Dictionaries

Python Dictionary is a most environment friendly statistics structure and used to shop the large quantity of data. It shops the statistics in the key-value pair format. Each price is stored corresponding to its key.

Keys must be a special and fee can be any kind such as integer, list, tuple, etc.

It is a mutable type; we can reassign after its creation. Below is the example of growing dictionary in Python.

Example –

employee = {"Name": "John", "Age": 29, "salary":250000,"Company":"GOOGLE"}      
print(type(employee))      
print("printing Employee data .... ")      
print(employee)  

Output:

Printing Employee records …. {‘Name’: ‘John’, ‘Age’: 29, ‘salary’: 250000, ‘Company’: ‘GOOGLE’}

The empty curly braces {} are used to create empty dictionary. To analyze more, go to the whole tutorial of the dictionary.

Python Dictionary

Python Dictionary Methods

Python Sets

A Python set is a series of unordered elements. Each component in set need to be special and immutable. Sets are mutable which potential we can alter every time throughout the program. Let’s apprehend the example of growing set in Python.

Example –

# Creating Set  
Month = {"January", "February", "March", "April", "May", "June", "July"}  
print(Month)  
print(type(Month))  

Output:

{‘March’, ‘July’, ‘April’, ‘May’, ‘June’, ‘February’, ‘January’}

To get the extra statistics about sets, visit the following resources.

Python Sets

Python Set Methods

Python Functional Programming

This part of Python tutorial defines some necessary equipment related to practical programming such as lambda and recursive functions. These features are very environment friendly in conducting the complex tasks. We define a few important functions, such as reduce, map, and filter. Python provides the functools module that consists of various purposeful programming tools. Visit the following tutorial to research extra about practical programming.

Python Function

Python map() Function

Python filter() Function

Python reduce() Function

Python functool Module

Python Lambda Function

Python File I/O

Files are used to shop statistics in a computer disk. In this tutorial, we provide an explanation for the built-in file object of Python. We can open a file the usage of Python script and function a number operations such as writing, reading, and appending. There are more than a few approaches of opening a file. We are explained with the relevant example. We will additionally learn to function read/write operations on binary files.

Python File I/O

Python Modules

Python modules are the application archives that contain a Python code or functions. There are two kinds of module in the Python – User-define modules and built-in modules. A module that the consumer defines, or we can say that our Python code saved with .py extension, is handled as a user-define module.

Built-in modules are predefined modules of Python. To use the performance of the modules, we need to import them into our present day working program.

Python Modules

Python Exceptions

An exception can be described as an uncommon condition in a program resulting in the interruption in the waft of the program.

Whenever an exception occurs, the program stops the execution, and for that reason the further code is now not executed. Therefore, an exception is the run-time blunders that are unable to deal with to Python script. An exception is a Python object that represents an error.

Python Exceptions

Python CSV

A csv stands for “comma separated values”, which is defined as a easy file format that makes use of precise structuring to organize tabular data. It shops tabular statistics such as spreadsheet or database in undeniable text and has a frequent layout for statistics interchange. A csv file opens into the excel sheet, and the rows and columns records define the widespread format. Visit the following tutorial to learn the CSV module in detail.

Python Read CSV File

Python Write CSV File

Python Sending Mail

We can send or study a mail using the Python script. Python’s general library modules are beneficial for managing a number protocols such as PoP3 and IMAP. We will learn how to send a mail with the famous email provider SMTP from a Python script.

Python Sending Emails

Python Magic Methods

Python magic approach is defined as the extraordinary technique which provides “magic” to a class. It starts and ends with double underscores, for example, _init_ or _str_.

The built-in classes define many magic methods. The dir() feature can be used to see the range of magic techniques inherited via a class. It has two prefixes and suffix underscores in the technique name.

Python Magic Methods

Python Oops Concepts

Everything in Python is dealt with as an object which include integer values, floats, functions, classes, and none. Apart from that, Python supports all oriented concepts. Below is the short introduction of oops concepts of Python.

Classes and Objects – Python classes are the blueprint of the object. An object is a collection of data and method that act on the data.

Inheritance – An inheritance is a technique where one class inherits the properties of other classes.

Constructor – Python provides a special method __init__() which is known as a constructor. This method is automatically called when an object is instantiated.

Data Member – A variable that holds data associated with a class and its objects.

To examine the oops idea in detail, go to the following resources.

Python Oops Concepts

Python Object and classes

Python Constructor

Python Inheritance

Python Polymorphism

Python Advance Topics

Python includes many advance and useful ideas that help the programmer to solve the complex tasks. These concepts are given below.

Python Iterator

An iterator is without a doubt an object that can be iterated upon. It returns one object at a time. It can be implemented the usage of the two distinct methods, __iter__() and __next__().

To research extra about the iterators visit our Python Iterators tutorial.

Python Generators

The Generators are an easiest way of growing Iterators. To study extra about, go to our Python Generators tutorial.

Python Decorators

These are used to adjust the behavior of the function. Decorators furnish the flexibility to wrap any other characteristic to enlarge the working of wrapped function, barring permanently enhancing it.

To learn more about, go to the Python Decorators tutorial.

Python Database Connections

We can use various databases alongside with Python. You can study the full tutorial to visit below resources. Python DBI-API acclaims popular units of performance to be blanketed in the database connectivity modules for respective RDBMS products. We give an explanation for all necessary database connectivity the use of Python DBI-API.

Python MySQL

Environment Setup

Database Connection

Creating New Database

Creating Tables

Insert Operation

Read Operation

Update Operation

Join Operation

Performing Transactions

Python MongoDB

Python MongoDB

Python SQLite

Python SQLite

Python CGI

Python CGI stands for “Common Gateway Interface”, which is used to define how to change records between the webserver and a custom Python scripts. The Common Gateway Interface is a fashionable for exterior gateway applications to interface with the server, such as HTTP Servers. To examine more about Python CGI, go to the following tutorial.

Python CGI

Prerequisite

Before gaining knowledge of Python, you ought to have the simple understanding of programming concepts.

Audience

Our Python tutorial is designed to assist novices and professionals.

Problem

We assure that you will no longer discover any problem in this Python tutorial. But if there is any mistake, please post the hassle in contact form.

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